Thursday, October 29, 2015

Variant object,HTTP , Origin Content Server,Accept headers

Variant objects in the context of HTTP are objects served by an Origin Content Server in a type of transmitted data variation (i.e. uncompressed, compressed, different languages, etc.).

HTTP/1.1 (1997?1999) introduces Content/Accept headers. These are used in HTTP requests and responses to state which variant the data is presented in.

Monday, October 26, 2015

Transport Layer Security,Secure Sockets Layer, by-product, message authentication,web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and voice-over-IP,transport layer

Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols designed to provide communications security over a computer network.They use X.509 certificates and hence asymmetric cryptography to authenticate the counterparty with whom they are communicating,and to negotiate a symmetric key. This session key is then used to encrypt data flowing between the parties. This allows for data/message confidentiality, and message authentication codes for message integrity and as a by-product, message authentication. Several versions of the protocols are in widespread use in applications such as web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and voice-over-IP (VoIP). An important property in this context is forward secrecy, so the short-term session key cannot be derived from the long-term asymmetric secret key.

As a consequence of choosing X.509 certificates, certificate authorities and a public key infrastructure are necessary to verify the relation between a certificate and its owner, as well as to generate, sign, and administer the validity of certificates. While this can be more beneficial than verifying the identities via a web of trust, the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures made it more widely known that certificate authorities are a weak point from a security standpoint, allowing man-in-the-middle attacks (MITM).

In the Internet Protocol Suite, TLS and SSL encrypt the data of network connections in the application layer. In OSI model equivalences, TLS/SSL is initialized at layer 5 (session layer) and works at layer 6 (the presentation layer).The session layer has a handshake using an asymmetric cipher in order to establish cipher settings and a shared key for that session; then the presentation layer encrypts the rest of the communication using a symmetric cipher and that session key. In both models, TLS and SSL work on behalf of the underlying transport layer, whose segments carry encrypted data.

Friday, October 23, 2015

Usage in social media,iPhone ,Widget, web experiences

End users primarily use widgets to enhance their personal web experiences, or the web experiences of visitors to their personal sites.

The use of widgets has proven increasingly popular, where users of social media are able to add stand-alone applications to blogs, profiles and community pages. Widgets add utility in the same way that an iPhone application does. The developers of these widgets are often offering them as a form of sponsored content, which can pay for the cost of the development when the widgets' utility maps to the user's needs in a way where both parties gain. For example, a sports news brand might gain awareness and increased audience share in exchange for the utility of current game scores being instantly and dynamically available - the blog which posted the Sports score widget might gain in having a stickier site.

Element of control

One important factor with Widgets is that the host does not control the content. The content or the functionality it provides cannot be modified by the host. The content is pre-published by the publisher/author/service provider and the host can either accept that content or not use the widget. The host does, however, control the placement of the Widget. Because the host can always take the Widget down, it assures a large degree of mutual advantage and satisfaction with performance and content.

Monday, October 19, 2015

TLS handshake,control,client and server

When the connection starts, the record encapsulates a "control" protocol the handshake messaging protocol  (content type 22). This protocol is used to exchange all the information required by both sides for the exchange of the actual application data by TLS. It defines the messages formatting or containing this information and the order of their exchange. These may vary according to the demands of the client and server i.e., there are several possible procedures to set up the connection. This initial exchange results in a successful TLS connection (both parties ready to transfer application data with TLS) or an alert message

Friday, October 16, 2015

Suffix proxy,web content ,bypassing,web filters

A suffix proxy allows a user to access web content by appending the name of the proxy server to the URL of the requested content (e.g. ""). Suffix proxy servers are easier to use than regular proxy servers but they do not offer high levels of anonymity and their primary use is for bypassing web filters. However, this is rarely used due to more advanced web filters.

Tuesday, October 13, 2015

Shared web hosting service_Name-based,virtual hosting,shared IP hosting,multiple host,single machine

In name-based virtual hosting, also called shared IP hosting, the virtual hosts serve multiple host names on a single machine with a single IP address. This is possible because when a web browser requests a resource from a web server using HTTP/1.1 it includes the requested host name as part of the request. The server uses this information to determine which web site to show the user.

Friday, October 9, 2015

Shared web hosting service,Shared web hosting service,sits,Internet

A shared web hosting service refers to a web hosting service where many websites reside on one web server connected to the Internet. Each site "sits" on its own partition, or section/place on the server, to keep it separate from other sites. This is generally the most economical option for hosting, as many people share the overall cost of server maintenance.

Tuesday, October 6, 2015

Router,networking device,web pages, email, IM,DSL router,ISP networks, Internet backbone

A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks (as opposed to a network switch, which connects data lines from one single network). When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. This creates an overlay internetwork. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node. q

The most familiar type of routers are home and small office routers that simply pass data, such as web pages, email, IM, and videos between the home computers and the Internet. An example of a router would be the owner's cable or DSL router, which connects to the Internet through an ISP. More sophisticated routers, such as enterprise routers, connect large business or ISP networks up to the powerful core routers that forward data at high speed along the optical fiber lines of the Internet backbone. Though routers are typically dedicated hardware devices, use of software-based routers has grown increasingly common.

Saturday, October 3, 2015

Quick Start Joomla Package,Joomla,CMS, modules,

Quick Start Package is fully functional Joomla package which contains CMS, modules, selected templates and plugins with the configurations and the data that is used in the demo website. The sample data can also be personalized based on the template in quick start package and is different from the default Joomla! 3.x (2.5.x) package.

Tuesday, September 29, 2015

Proxy server,web proxies,file, connection, web page

In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource available from a different server and the proxy server evaluates the request as a way to simplify and control its complexity. Proxies were invented to add structure and encapsulation to distributed systems.Today, most proxies are web proxies, facilitating access to content on the World Wide Web and providing anonymity.

Saturday, September 26, 2015

Programming on Linux,Compiler, LLVM, PHP, Perl, Ruby, Python QuickBASIC,Turbo BASIC programming

Linux distributions support dozens of programming languages. The original development tools used for building both Linux applications and operating system programs are found within the GNU toolchain, which includes the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU build system. Amongst others, GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C++, Go and Fortran. Many programming languages have a cross-platform reference implementation that supports Linux, for example PHP, Perl, Ruby, Python, Java, Go, Rust and Haskell. First released in 2003, the LLVM project provides an alternative cross-platform open-source compiler for many languages. Proprietary compilers for Linux include the Intel C++ Compiler, Sun Studio, and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler. BASIC in the form of Visual Basic is supported in such forms as Gambas, FreeBASIC, and XBasic, and in terms of terminal programming or QuickBASIC or Turbo BASIC programming in the form of QB64.

A common feature of Unix-like systems, Linux includes traditional specific-purpose programming languages targeted at scripting, text processing and system configuration and management in general. Linux distributions support shell scripts, awk, sed and make. Many programs also have an embedded programming language to support configuring or programming themselves. For example, regular expressions are supported in programs like grep, or locate, while advanced text editors, like GNU Emacs, have a complete Lisp interpreter built-in.

Most distributions also include support for PHP, Perl, Ruby, Python and other dynamic languages. While not as common, Linux also supports C# (via Mono), Vala, and Scheme. A number of Java Virtual Machines and development kits run on Linux, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe and JikesRVM.

GNOME and KDE are popular desktop environments and provide a framework for developing applications. These projects are based on the GTK+ and Qt widget toolkits, respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework. Both support a wide variety of languages. There are a number of Integrated development environments available including Anjuta, Code::Blocks, CodeLite, Eclipse, Geany, ActiveState Komodo, KDevelop, Lazarus, MonoDevelop, NetBeans, and Qt Creator, while the long-established editors Vim, nano and Emacs remain popular.

Wednesday, September 23, 2015

Plesk Plesk Control Panel, Plesk Server Administrator, Novosibirsk, Russia, Plesk

Plesk (ex: Parallels Plesk Control Panel, Plesk Server Administrator, or just Plesk) software package is a commercial web hosting automation program. Originally released under the U.S. company Plesk Inc. and designed in Novosibirsk, Russia, Plesk was acquired by SWSoft in July 2003.SWSoft renamed themselves under the Parallels name (a brand which had been acquired by SWSoft) in 2008.

Saturday, September 19, 2015


The mascot of the PHP project is the elePHPant, a blue elephant with the PHP logo on its side, designed by Vincent Pontier. The elePHPant is sometimes differently colored when in plush toy form.

Wednesday, September 16, 2015

PHP ,Hypertext Preprocessor,server-side scripting language,Zend Engine, PHP interpreter

PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language. As of January 2013, PHP was installed on more than 240 million websites (39% of those sampled) and 2.1 million web servers. Originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, the reference implementation of PHP (powered by the Zend Engine) is now produced by The PHP Group.While PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page,it now stands for PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, which is a recursive backronym.

PHP code can be simply mixed with HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various templating engines and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter, which is usually implemented as a web server's native module or a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. After the PHP code is interpreted and executed, the web server sends resulting output to its client, usually in form of a part of the generated web page; for example, PHP code can generate a web page's HTML code, an image, or some other data. PHP has also evolved to include a command-line interface (CLI) capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications.

The canonical PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge.

Despite its popularity, no written specification or standard existed for the PHP language until 2014, leaving the canonical PHP interpreter as a de facto standard. Since 2014, there is ongoing work on creating a formal PHP specification.

Sunday, September 13, 2015

Operating system support,Linux , Unix , Red Hat Network,FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD

Availability, price and employee familiarity often determines which operating systems are offered on dedicated servers. Variations of Linux and Unix (open source operating systems) are often included at no charge to the customer. Commercial operating systems include Microsoft Windows Server, provided through a special program called Microsoft SPLA. Red Hat Enterprise is a commercial version of Linux offered to hosting providers on a monthly fee basis. The monthly fee provides OS updates through the Red Hat Network using an application called yum. Other operating systems are available from the open source community at no charge. These include CentOS, Fedora Core, Debian, and many other Linux distributions or BSD systems FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD.

Support for any of these operating systems typically depends on the level of management offered with a particular dedicated server plan. Operating system support may include updates to the core system in order to acquire the latest security fixes, patches, and system-wide vulnerability resolutions. Updates to core operating systems include kernel upgrades, service packs, application updates, and security patches that keep server secure and safe. Operating system updates and support relieves the burden of server management from the dedicated server owner.

Wednesday, September 9, 2015

MySQL ,My Sequel,relational database management system,Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl

MySQL officially, but also called  "My Sequel") is (as of July 2013) the world's second most[a] widely used relational database management system (RDBMS) and most widely used open-source RDBMS.It is named after co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter, My.The SQL acronym stands for Structured Query Language.

The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation.

MySQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central component of the widely used LAMP open source web application software stack (and other 'AMP' stacks). LAMP is an acronym for "Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python." Free-software-open source projects that require a full-featured database management system often use MySQL.

For proprietary use, several paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality. Applications which use MySQL databases include: TYPO3, MODx, Joomla, WordPress, phpBB, MyBB, Drupal and other software. MySQL is also used in many high-profile, large-scale websites, including Google (though not for searches), Facebook,Twitter,Flickr, and YouTube.

Sunday, September 6, 2015

Mobile Web widget,mobile phone,tablet,personal computer,laptop computer

A Mobile Web widget has the same purpose and function as a web widget, but it is made for use on a mobile device such as mobile phone or tablet. In contrast, a web widget is on a personal computer or laptop computer

Thursday, September 3, 2015

Microsoft SQL Server_Data storage,Microsoft SQL Server,Symmetric Round Down,database, index, allocation map,page number, page type, free space

Data storage is a database, which is a collection of tables with typed columns. SQL Server supports different data types, including primary types such as Integer, Float, Decimal, Char (including character strings), Varchar (variable length character strings), binary (for unstructured blobs of data), Text (for textual data) among others. The rounding of floats to integers uses either Symmetric Arithmetic Rounding or Symmetric Round Down (Fix) depending on arguments: SELECT Round(2.5, 0) gives 3.

Microsoft SQL Server also allows user-defined composite types (UDTs) to be defined and used. It also makes server statistics available as virtual tables and views (called Dynamic Management Views or DMVs). In addition to tables, a database can also contain other objects including views, stored procedures, indexes and constraints, along with a transaction log. A SQL Server database can span multiple OS-level files with a maximum file size of 260 bytes (1 exabyte). The data in the database are stored in primary data files with an extension .mdf. Secondary data files, identified with a .ndf extension, are used to allow the data of a single database to be spread across more than one file, and optionally across more than one file system. Log files are identified with the .ldf extension.

Storage space allocated to a database is divided into sequentially numbered pages, each 8 KB in size. A page is the basic unit of I/O for SQL Server operations. A page is marked with a 96-byte header which stores metadata about the page including the page number, page type, free space on the page and the ID of the object that owns it. Page type defines the data contained in the page - data stored in the database, index, allocation map which holds information about how pages are allocated to tables and indexes, change map which holds information about the changes made to other pages since last backup or logging, or contain large data types such as image or text. While page is the basic unit of an I/O operation, space is actually managed in terms of an extent which consists of 8 pages. A database object can either span all 8 pages in an extent ("uniform extent") or share an extent with up to 7 more objects ("mixed extent"). A row in a database table cannot span more than one page, so is limited to 8 KB in size. However, if the data exceeds 8 KB and the row contains Varchar or Varbinary data, the data in those columns are moved to a new page (or possibly a sequence of pages, called an Allocation unit) and replaced with a pointer to the data.

For physical storage of a table, its rows are divided into a series of partitions (numbered 1 to n). The partition size is user defined; by default all rows are in a single partition. A table is split into multiple partitions in order to spread a database over a computer cluster. Rows in each partition are stored in either B-tree or heap structure. If the table has an associated, clustered index to allow fast retrieval of rows, the rows are stored in-order according to their index values, with a B-tree providing the index. The data is in the leaf node of the leaves, and other nodes storing the index values for the leaf data reachable from the respective nodes. If the index is non-clustered, the rows are not sorted according to the index keys. An indexed view has the same storage structure as an indexed table. A table without a clustered index is stored in an unordered heap structure. However, the table may have non-clustered indices to allow fast retrieval of rows. In some situations the heap structure has performance advantages over the clustered structure. Both heaps and B-trees can span multiple allocation units.

Saturday, August 29, 2015

Microsoft SQL Server_Buffer management,RAM ,checksum ,Buffer Manager, buffer cache,memory

SQL Server buffers pages in RAM to minimize disc I/O. Any 8 KB page can be buffered in-memory, and the set of all pages currently buffered is called the buffer cache. The amount of memory available to SQL Server decides how many pages will be cached in memory. The buffer cache is managed by the Buffer Manager. Either reading from or writing to any page copies it to the buffer cache. Subsequent reads or writes are redirected to the in-memory copy, rather than the on-disc version. The page is updated on the disc by the Buffer Manager only if the in-memory cache has not been referenced for some time. While writing pages back to disc, asynchronous I/O is used whereby the I/O operation is done in a background thread so that other operations do not have to wait for the I/O operation to complete. Each page is written along with its checksum when it is written. When reading the page back, its checksum is computed again and matched with the stored version to ensure the page has not been damaged or tampered with in the meantime.

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

Linux_Video input infrastructure,kernel-userspace,APIs , DVB API,userspace

Linux currently has two modern kernel-userspace APIs for handing video input devices: V4L2 API for video streams and radio, and DVB API for digital TV reception.
Due to the complexity and diversity of different devices, and due to the large amount of formats and standards handled by those APIs, this infrastructure needs to evolve to better fit other devices. Also, a good userspace device library is the key of the success for having userspace applications to be able to work with all formats supported by those devices.

Sunday, August 23, 2015

Microsoft SQL Server,relational database management system,Microsoft,database server,network ,workloads ,T-SQL,ANSI SQL

Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft. As a database server, it is a software product whose primary function is to store and retrieve data as requested by other software applications, be it those on the same computer or those running on another computer across a network (including the Internet). There are at least a dozen different editions of Microsoft SQL Server aimed at different audiences and for workloads ranging from small single-machine applications to large Internet-facing applications with many concurrent users. Its primary query languages are T-SQL and ANSI SQL.

Wednesday, August 19, 2015

Linux_User interface,CLI shells ,text-based user interfaces,userland,K Desktop Environment (KDE), GNOME, Cinnamon, Unity, LXDE, Pantheon and Xfce

The user interface, also known as the shell, is either a command-line interface (CLI), a graphical user interface (GUI), or through controls attached to the associated hardware, which is common for embedded systems. For desktop systems, the default mode is usually a graphical user interface, although the CLI is available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console.

CLI shells are the text-based user interfaces, which use text for both input and output. The dominant shell used in Linux is the GNU Bourne-Again Shell (bash), originally developed for the GNU project. Most low-level Linux components, including various parts of the userland, use the CLI exclusively. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks, and provides very simple inter-process communication.

On desktop systems, the most popular user interfaces are the GUI shells, packaged together with extensive desktop environments, such as the K Desktop Environment (KDE), GNOME, Cinnamon, Unity, LXDE, Pantheon and Xfce, though a variety of additional user interfaces exist. Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window System, often simply called "X". It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application; however, certain extensions of the X Window System are not capable of working over the network.Several popular X display servers exist, with the reference implementation, X.Org Server, being the most popular.

Different window managers exist for X11, including tiling, dynamic, stacking and compositing types. Simpler X window managers, such as FVWM, Enlightenment, and Window Maker, provide a minimalist functionality with respect to the desktop environments. A window manager provides a means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows, and interacts with the X Window System. The desktop environments include window managers as part of their standard installations (Mutter for GNOME, KWin for KDE, Xfwm for xfce) although users may choose to use a different window manager if preferred.

Wayland is a display server protocol intended as a replacement for the aged X11 protocol; as of 2014, Wayland has not received wider adoption. Unlike X11, Wayland does not need an external window manager and compositing manager. Therefore, a Wayland compositor takes the role of the display server, window manager and compositing manager. Weston is the reference implementation of Wayland, while GNOME's Mutter and KDE's KWin are being ported to Wayland as standalone display servers instead of merely compositing window managers. Enlightenment has already been successfully ported to Wayland since version 19.

Sunday, August 16, 2015

Joomla_Extensions,components, modules, plugins, templates, and languages,boxes,login module,Joomla conversions

Joomla extensions extend the functionality of Joomla websites. Five types of extensions may be distinguished: components, modules, plugins, templates, and languages. Each of these extensions handles a specific function.

    Components are the largest and most complex extensions. Most components have two parts: a site part and an administrator part. Every time a Joomla page loads, one component is called to render the main page body. Components produce the major portion of a page because a component is driven by a menu item.

    Plugins are advanced extensions and are, in essence, event handlers. In the execution of any part of Joomla, a module or a component, an event may be triggered. When an event is triggered, plugins that are registered to handle that event execute. For example, a plugin could be used to block user-submitted articles and filter text. The line between plugins and components can sometimes be a little fuzzy. Sometimes large or advanced plugins are called components even though they don't actually render large portions of a page. An SEF URL extension might be created as a component, even though its functionality could be accomplished with just a plugin.

    Templates describe the main design of a Joomla website. While the CMS manages the website content, templates determine the style or look and feel and layout of a site.

    Modules render pages in Joomla. They are linked to Joomla components to display new content or images. Joomla modules look like boxes, such as the search or login module.However, they don?t require html in Joomla to work.

    Languages are very simple extensions that can either be used as a core part or as an extension. Language and font information can also be used for PDF or PSD to Joomla conversions.

Thursday, August 13, 2015

Linux ,POSIX,Unix,computer operating system,open-source software development,automation controls, televisions and video game consoles

Linux is a Unix-like and mostly POSIX-compliant computer operating system assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on 5 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds. The Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to describe the operating system, which has led to some controversy.

Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel x86?based personal computers, but has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any other operating system.It is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers and supercomputers, but is used on only around 1.5% of desktop computers.Linux also runs on embedded systems, which are devices whose operating system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored to the system; this includes mobile phones, tablet computers, network routers, facility automation controls, televisions and video game consoles. Android, the most widely used operating system for tablets and smartphones, is built on top of the Linux kernel.

The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and open-source software collaboration. The underlying source code may be used, modified, and distributed?commercially or non-commercially?by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License. Typically, Linux is packaged in a form known as a Linux distribution, for both desktop and server use. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Fedora, openSUSE, Arch Linux, and the commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel, supporting utilities and libraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use.

Distributions oriented toward desktop use typically include X11, a Wayland implementation or Mir as the windowing system, and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME or the KDE Software Compilation. Some of such distributions may include a less resource intensive desktop such as LXDE or Xfce, for use on older or less powerful computers. Distributions intended to run on servers may omit all graphical environments from the standard install, and instead include other software to set up and operate a solution stack such as LAMP. Because Linux is freely redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any intended use.

Sunday, August 9, 2015

Joomla_Deployment,LAMP stack,control panels,Microsoft Web Platform Installer,PHP ,MySQL

Like many other web applications, Joomla may be run on a LAMP stack.

Many web hosts have control panels for automatic installation of Joomla. On Windows, Joomla can be installed using the Microsoft Web Platform Installer, which automatically detects and installs dependencies, such as PHP or MySQL.

Many web sites provide information on installing and maintaining Joomla sites.

Thursday, August 6, 2015

Joomla,content management system (CMS),open-source,web content, web application framework,page caching, RSS feeds, printable versions of pages, news flashes, blogs, polls, search

Joomla is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) for publishing web content. It is built on a model view controller web application framework that can be used independently of the CMS.

Joomla is written in PHP, uses object-oriented programming (OOP) techniques (since version 1.5) and software design patterns, stores data in a MySQL, MS SQL (since version 2.5), or PostgreSQL (since version 3.0) database, and includes features such as page caching, RSS feeds, printable versions of pages, news flashes, blogs, polls, search, and support for language internationalization.

As of February 2014, Joomla has been downloaded over 50 million times.Over 7,700 free and commercial extensions are available from the official Joomla! Extension Directory, and more are available from other sources.It is estimated to be the second most used content management system on the Internet after WordPress.

Monday, August 3, 2015

Interface, Java, JavaScript, DHTML, Flash, Silverlight,operating system, Ajax, PHP

Through Java, JavaScript, DHTML, Flash, Silverlight and other technologies, application-specific methods such as drawing on the screen, playing audio, and access to the keyboard and mouse are all possible. Many services have worked to combine all of these into a more familiar interface that adopts the appearance of an operating system. General purpose techniques such as drag and drop are also supported by these technologies. Web developers often use client-side scripting to add functionality, especially to create an interactive experience that does not require page reloading. Recently, technologies have been developed to coordinate client-side scripting with server-side technologies such as PHP. Ajax, a web development technique using a combination of various technologies, is an example of technology which creates a more interactive experience.

Wednesday, July 29, 2015

I2P anonymous proxy,proxy network,anonymity,network ,communications ,I2P route,I2P runs

The I2P anonymous network ('I2P') is a proxy network aiming at online anonymity. It implements garlic routing, which is an enhancement of Tor's onion routing. I2P is fully distributed and works by encrypting all communications in various layers and relaying them through a network of routers run by volunteers in various locations. By keeping the source of the information hidden, I2P offers censorship resistance. The goals of I2P are to protect users' personal freedom, privacy, and ability to conduct confidential business.

Each user of I2P runs an I2P router on their computer (node). The I2P router takes care of finding other peers and building anonymizing tunnels through them. I2P provides proxies for all protocols (HTTP, IRC, SOCKS, ...).

The software is free and open-source, and the network is free of charge to use.

Sunday, July 26, 2015

HTTP compression_Security implications,CRIME,HTTP compression,dubbed BREACH,SPDY header compression,BREACH

In 2012, a general attack against the use of data compression, called CRIME, was announced. While the CRIME attack could work effectively against a large number of protocols, including but not limited to TLS, and application-layer protocols such as SPDY or HTTP, only exploits against TLS and SPDY were demonstrated and largely mitigated in browsers and servers. The CRIME exploit against HTTP compression has not been mitigated at all, even though the authors of CRIME have warned that this vulnerability might be even more widespread than SPDY and TLS compression combined.

In 2013, a new instance of the CRIME attack against HTTP compression, dubbed BREACH, was published. A BREACH attack can extract login tokens, email addresses or other sensitive information from TLS encrypted web traffic in as little as 30 seconds (depending on the number of bytes to be extracted), provided the attacker tricks the victim into visiting a malicious web link.All versions of TLS and SSL are at risk from BREACH regardless of the encryption algorithm or cipher used.Unlike previous instances of CRIME, which can be successfully defended against by turning off TLS compression or SPDY header compression, BREACH exploits HTTP compression which cannot realistically be turned off, as virtually all web servers rely upon it to improve data transmission speeds for users

Thursday, July 23, 2015

HTTP compression,bandwidth utilization,web servers,browsers ,HTTP message,cached,transferred,Compression,Transfer-Encoding

HTTP compression is a capability that can be built into web servers and web clients to improve transfer speed and bandwidth utilization.

HTTP data is compressed before it is sent from the server: compliant browsers will announce what methods are supported to the server before downloading the correct format; browsers that do not support compliant compression method will download uncompressed data. The most common compression schemes include gzip and Deflate, however a full list of available schemes is maintained by the IANA.Additionally, third parties develop new methods and include them in their products, for example the Google Shared Dictionary Compression Over HTTP (SDCH) scheme implemented in the Google Chrome browser and used on Google servers.

There are two different ways compression can be done in HTTP. At a lower level, a Transfer-Encoding header field may indicate the payload of a HTTP message is compressed. At a higher level, a Content-Encoding header field may indicate that a resource being transferred, cached, or otherwise referenced is compressed. Compression using Content-Encoding is more widely supported than Transfer-Encoding, and some browsers do not advertise for Transfer-Encoding compression to avoid triggering bugs in servers

Sunday, July 19, 2015

HTML and the DOM,web development tools, DOM viewer,web browsers,CSS properties

HTML and DOM viewer and editor is commonly included in the built in web development tools. The difference between the HTML and DOM viewer, and the view source feature in web browsers is that the HTML and DOM viewer allow you to see the DOM as it was rendered in addition to allowing you to make changes to the HTML and DOM and see the change reflected in the page after the change is made.

In addition to selecting and editing, the HTML elements panels will usually also display properties of the DOM object, such as display dimension, and CSS properties.

Thursday, July 16, 2015

Drupal_Database abstraction,SQL queries,SQLite,database engine,PHP distribution,abstraction ,multi-site table

Prior to version 7, Drupal had functions that performed tasks related to databases, such as SQL query cleansing, multi-site table name prefixing, and generating proper SQL queries. In particular, Drupal 6 introduced an abstraction layer that allowed programmers to create SQL queries without writing SQL.

Drupal 7 extends the data abstraction layer so that a programmer no longer needs to write SQL queries as text strings. It uses PHP Data Objects to abstract the database. Microsoft has written a database driver for their SQL Server.Drupal 7 supports the file-based SQLite database engine, which is part of the standard PHP distribution.

Monday, July 13, 2015

Drupal_Core modules, Blogs, books, comments, forums, and polls,OpenID support ,RSS feed, feed aggregator

Drupal core includes optional modules that can be enabled by the administrator to extend the functionality of the core website.

The core Drupal distribution provides a number of features, including:
  •     Access statistics and logging
  •     Advanced search
  •     Blogs, books, comments, forums, and polls
  •     Caching and feature throttling for improved performance
  •     Descriptive URLs
  •     Multi-level menu system
  •     Multi-site support
  •     Multi-user content creation and editing
  •     OpenID support
  •     RSS feed and feed aggregator
  •     Security and new release update notification
  •     User profiles
  •     Various access control restrictions (user roles, IP addresses, email)
  •     Workflow tools (triggers and actions)

Thursday, July 9, 2015

Drupal_Core themes,browser interface,color scheme,Color Module

Drupal includes core themes, which customize the "look and feel" of Drupal sites,for example, Garland and Bartik.

The Color Module, introduced in Drupal core 5.0, allows administrators to change the color scheme of certain themes via a browser interface.

Monday, July 6, 2015

Drupal_Auto-update notification,administrator ,Drupal security,vulnerability

Drupal can automatically notify the administrator about new versions of modules, themes, or the Drupal core. It's important to update quickly after security updates are released. On October 15, 2014, a sql injection vulnerability was announced and update released.Two weeks later the Drupal security team released an advisory explaining that everyone should act under the assumption that any site not updated within 7 hours of the announcement are infected.Thus, it can be extremely important to apply these updates quickly and usage of a tool to make this process easier like drush is highly recommended.

Friday, July 3, 2015

Drupal_Accessibility,Web accessibility,framework,WAI-ARIA,administrator ,CSS

With the release of Drupal 7, Web accessibility has been greatly improved by the Drupal community.Drupal is a good framework for building sites accessible to people with disabilities, because many of the best practices have been incorporated into the program code Core. The accessibility team is carrying on the work of identifying and resolving accessibility barriers and raising awareness within the community. Drupal 7 started the adoption of WAI-ARIA support for Rich Internet Applications and this has been carried further in Drupal 8. There have been many improvements to both the visitor and administrator sides of Drupal, especially:
  •     Drag and drop functionality
  •     Improved color contrast and intensity
  •     Adding skip navigation to Core themes
  •     Adding labels by default for input forms
  •     Fixing CSS display:none with consistent methods for hiding and exposing text onfocus.

The community also added an accessibility gate for Core issues in Drupal 8.

Monday, June 29, 2015

Drupal,content-management framework,GNU General Public License,taxonomy,RSS feeds,menu management,MySQL, MongoDB, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, SQLite, or Microsoft SQL Server

Drupal is a free and open-source content-management framework written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License. It is used as a back-end framework for at least 2.1% of all Web sites worldwide ranging from personal blogs to corporate, political, and government sites including and is also used for knowledge management and business collaboration.

The standard release of Drupal, known as Drupal core, contains basic features common to content management systems. These include user account registration and maintenance, menu management, RSS feeds, taxonomy, page layout customization, and system administration. The Drupal core installation can serve as a simple Web site, a single- or multi-user blog, an Internet forum, or a community Web site providing for user-generated content.

As of April 2015, there are more than 30,000 free community-contributed addons, known as contributed modules, available to alter and extend Drupal's core capabilities and add new features or customize Drupal's behavior and appearance. The Drupal community has more than 1 million members (as of October 2013) and 31,000 Developers (as of February 2014). Because of this plug-in extensibility and modular design, "The Drupal Overview" on Drupal's Web site describes it as a content management framework. Drupal is also described as a Web application framework, as it meets the generally accepted feature requirements for such frameworks.

Although Drupal offers a sophisticated programming interface for developers, basic Web site installation and administration of the framework requires no programming skills.

Drupal runs on any computing platform that supports both a Web server capable of running PHP (including Apache, LiteSpeed, IIS, Lighttpd, Hiawatha, Cherokee or Nginx) and a database (such as MySQL, MongoDB, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, SQLite, or Microsoft SQL Server) to store content and settings.

Friday, June 26, 2015

DNS proxy ,Internet Domain Name Server,DNS records

A DNS proxy server takes DNS queries from a (usually local) network and forwards them to an Internet Domain Name Server. It may also cache DNS records.

Tuesday, June 23, 2015

DNS and Name Servers,IP number,Name Server,hosting provider

DNS stands for "Domain Name System." The domain name system acts like a large telephone directory and in that it's the master database, which associates a domain name such as with the appropriate IP number. Consider the IP number something similar to a phone number: When someone calls, the ISP looks at the DNS server, and asks "how do I contact" The DNS server responds, for example, "it can be found at:". As the Internet understands it, this can be considered the phone number for the server, which houses the web site. When the domain name is registered/purchased on a particular registrar's "name server", the DNS settings are kept on their server, and in most cases point the domain to the Name Server of your hosting provider. This Name Server is where the IP number (currently associated with your domain name) resides.

Friday, June 19, 2015

cPanel ,web hosting,administrators,resellers, end-user,CentOS,Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL),CloudLinux

cPanel is a Linux based web hosting control panel that provides a graphical interface and automation tools designed to simplify the process of hosting a web site. cPanel utilizes a 3 tier structure that provides capabilities for administrators, resellers, and end-user website owners to control the various aspects of website and server administration through a standard web browser.

In addition to the GUI, cPanel also has command line and API-based access that allows third party software vendors, web hosting organizations, and developers to automate standard system administration processes.

cPanel is designed to function either as a dedicated server or virtual private server. The latest cPanel version supports installation on CentOS, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), and CloudLinux.cPanel 11.30 is the last major version to support FreeBSD.

Application-based support includes Apache, PHP, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Perl, and BIND (DNS). Email based support includes POP3, IMAP, SMTP services. cPanel is accessed via https on port 2083.

Once installed, cPanel cannot be easily removed. cPanel's FAQ states that the best way to uninstall cPanel is by reformating the server.However, uninstall guides are available online for expert server administrators who do not wish to reformat their server. Similarly, it should only be installed on a freshly installed operating system with minimal prior configuration.

Tuesday, June 16, 2015

Cloud computing_Software as a service (SaaS),application software,databases,on-demand software,

In the business model using software as a service (SaaS), users are provided access to application software and databases. Cloud providers manage the infrastructure and platforms that run the applications. SaaS is sometimes referred to as "on-demand software" and is usually priced on a pay-per-use basis or using a subscription fee.

In the SaaS model, cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloud users access the software from cloud clients. Cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform where the application runs. This eliminates the need to install and run the application on the cloud user's own computers, which simplifies maintenance and support. Cloud applications are different from other applications in their scalability.which can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet changing work demand. Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines. This process is transparent to the cloud user, who sees only a single access point. To accommodate a large number of cloud users, cloud applications can be multitenant, that is, any machine serves more than one cloud user organization.

The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user, so price is scalable and adjustable if users are added or removed at any point.

Proponents claim SaaS allows a business the potential to reduce IT operational costs by outsourcing hardware and software maintenance and support to the cloud provider. This enables the business to reallocate IT operations costs away from hardware/software spending and personnel expenses, towards meeting other goals. In addition, with applications hosted centrally, updates can be released without the need for users to install new software. One drawback of SaaS is that the users' data are stored on the cloud provider's server. As a result, there could be unauthorized access to the data. For this reason, users are increasingly adopting intelligent third-party key management systems to help secure their data.

Saturday, June 13, 2015

Cloud computing_Platform as a service,programming language,computing platform,Google App Engine

In the PaaS models, cloud providers deliver a computing platform, typically including operating system, programming language execution environment, database, and web server. Application developers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. With some PaaS offers like Microsoft Azure and Google App Engine, the underlying computer and storage resources scale automatically to match application demand so that the cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually. The latter has also been proposed by an architecture aiming to facilitate real-time in cloud environments.Even more specific application types can be provided via PaaS, e.g., such as media encoding as provided by services as bitcodin transcoding cloud or

Tuesday, June 9, 2015

Cloud computing_Infrastructure as a service,Xen, Oracle VirtualBox, KVM, VMware ESX/ESXi,Hyper-V,virtual machines

In the most basic cloud-service model & according to the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), providers of IaaS offer computers ? physical or (more often) virtual machines ? and other resources. (A hypervisor, such as Xen, Oracle VirtualBox, KVM, VMware ESX/ESXi, or Hyper-V runs the virtual machines as guests. Pools of hypervisors within the cloud operational support-system can support large numbers of virtual machines and the ability to scale services up and down according to customers' varying requirements.) IaaS clouds often offer additional resources such as a virtual-machine disk image library, raw block storage, and file or object storage, firewalls, load balancers, IP addresses, virtual local area networks (VLANs), and software bundles.IaaS-cloud providers supply these resources on-demand from their large pools installed in data centers. For wide-area connectivity, customers can use either the Internet or carrier clouds (dedicated virtual private networks).

To deploy their applications, cloud users install operating-system images and their application software on the cloud infrastructure. In this model, the cloud user patches and maintains the operating systems and the application software. Cloud providers typically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis: cost reflects the amount of resources allocated and consumed.

Saturday, June 6, 2015

Cloud computing, metaphor,computer resources,utility

Cloud computing is a computing term or metaphor that evolved in the late 1990s, based on utility and consumption of computer resources. Cloud computing involves application systems which are executed within the cloud and operated through internet enabled devices. Purely cloud computing does not rely on the use of cloud storage as it will be removed upon users download action. Clouds can be classified as public, private and hybrid.

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

Apache HTTP Server, Apache,web server,NCSA,Unix-like system,NetWare,FreeBSD

The Apache HTTP Server, colloquially called Apache, is the world's most widely used web server software. Originally based on the NCSA HTTPd server, development of Apache began in early 1995 after work on the NCSA code stalled. Apache played a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web,quickly overtaking NCSA HTTPd as the dominant HTTP server, and has remained the most popular HTTP server since April 1996. In 2009, it became the first web server software to serve more than 100 million websites.

Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation. Most commonly used on a Unix-like system (usually Linux),the software is available for a wide variety of operating systems, including Windows, OS X, Linux, Unix, FreeBSD, Solaris, NetWare, OS/2, TPF, OpenVMS and eComStation. Released under the Apache License, Apache is free and open-source software.

As of June 2013, Apache was estimated to serve 54.2% of all active website and 53.3% of the top servers across all domains.

Friday, May 29, 2015

Dedicated hosting service,hosting solution,management,colocation,colocation facilities,HVAC systems,Dedicated servers,Hybrid server,Complex Managed Hosting

A dedicated hosting service, dedicated server, or managed hosting service is a type of Dedicated servers in which the client leases an entire server not shared with anyone else. This is more flexible than shared hosting, as organizations have full control over the server(s), including choice of operating system, hardware, etc. There is also another level of dedicated or managed hosting commonly referred to as complex managed hosting. Complex Managed Hosting applies to both physical dedicated servers, Hybrid server and virtual servers, with many companies choosing a hybrid (combination of physical and virtual) hosting solution. There are many similarities between standard and complex managed hosting but the key difference is the level of administrative and engineering support that the customer pays for ? owing to both the increased size and complexity of the infrastructure deployment. The provider steps in to take over most of the management, including security, memory, storage and IT support. The service is primarily proactive in nature. Server administration can usually be provided by the hosting company as an add-on service. In some cases a dedicated server can offer less overhead and a larger return on investment. Dedicated servers are most often housed in data centers, similar to colocation facilities, providing redundant power sources and HVAC systems. In contrast to colocation, the server hardware is owned by the provider and in some cases they will provide support for operating systems or applications.

Using a dedicated hosting service offers the benefits of high performance, security, email stability, and control. Due to the relatively high price of dedicated hosting, it is mostly used by websites that receive a large volume of traffic.

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

CGI Proxy,web proxy,Richard Windmann,demonstrate

A CGI web proxy accepts target URLs using a Web form in the user's browser window, processes the request, and returns the results to the user's browser. Consequently it can be used on a device or network that does not allow "true" proxy settings to be changed. The first recorded CGI proxy was developed by American computer scientist Richard Windmann.

Some CGI proxies were set up for purposes such as making websites more accessible to disabled people, but have since been shut down due to excessive traffic, usually caused by a third party advertising the service as a means to bypass local filtering. Since many of these users don't care about the collateral damage they are causing, it became necessary for organizations to hide their proxies, disclosing the URLs only to those who take the trouble to contact the organization and demonstrate a genuine need.

Saturday, May 23, 2015

Cloud Clients,Chromebook,desktop computers,aptops, tablets and smartphones

Users access cloud computing using networked client devices, such as desktop computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Some of these devices  ? cloud clients ? rely on cloud computing for all or a majority of their applications so as to be essentially useless without it. Examples are thin clients and the browser-based Chromebook. Many cloud applications do not require specific software on the client and instead use a web browser to interact with the cloud application. With Ajax and HTML5 these Web user interfaces can achieve a similar, or even better, look and feel to native applications. Some cloud applications, however, support specific client software dedicated to these applications (e.g., virtual desktop clients and most email clients). Some legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology.

Tuesday, May 19, 2015

Bandwidth Pooling,Dedicated Hosting,availability,multi-provider,multi-homed,Prominent players,gigabyte usage model

This is a key mechanism for hosting buyers to determine which provider is offering the right pricing mechanism of bandwidth pricing.[according to whom?] Most Dedicated Hosting providers bundle bandwidth pricing along with the monthly charge for the dedicated server. Let us illustrate this with the help of an example. An average $100 server from any of the common dedicated bandwidth providers would carry 2 TB of bandwidth. Suppose you purchased 10 servers then you would have the ability to consume 2 TB of bandwidth per server. However, let us assume that given your application architecture only 2 of these 10 servers are really web facing while the rest are used for storage, search, database or other internal functions then the provider that allows bandwidth pooling would let you consume overall 20 TB of bandwidth as incoming or outbound or both depending on their policy. The provider that does not offer bandwidth pooling would just let you use 4 TB of bandwidth, and the rest of the 16 TB of bandwidth would be practically unusable. This fact is commonly known by all hosting providers, and allows hosting providers to cut costs by offering an amount of bandwidth that frequently will not be used. This is known as overselling, and allows high bandwidth customers to use more than what a host might otherwise offer, because they know that this will be balanced out by those customers who use less than the maximum allowed.

One of the reasons for choosing to outsource dedicated servers is the availability of high powered networks from multiple providers. As dedicated server providers utilize massive amounts of bandwidth, they are able to secure lower volume based pricing to include a multi-provider blend of bandwidth. To achieve the same type of network without a multi-provider blend of bandwidth, a large investment in core routers, long term contracts, and expensive monthly bills would need to be in place. The expenses needed to develop a network without a multi-provider blend of bandwidth does not make sense economically for hosting providers.

Many dedicated server providers include a service level agreement based on network up-time. Some dedicated server hosting providers offer a 100% up-time guarantee on their network. By securing multiple vendors for connectivity and using redundant hardware, providers are able to guarantee higher up-times; usually between 99-100% up-time if they are a higher quality provider. One aspect of higher quality providers is they are most likely to be multi-homed across multiple quality up-link providers, which in turn, provides significant redundancy in the event one goes down in addition to potentially improved routes to destinations.

Bandwidth consumption over the last several years has shifted from a per megabit usage model to a per gigabyte usage model. Bandwidth was traditionally measured in line speed access that included the ability to purchase needed megabits at a given monthly cost. As the shared hosting model developed, the trend towards gigabyte or total bytes transferred, replaced the megabit line speed model so dedicated server providers started offering per gigabyte.

Prominent players in the dedicated server market offer large amounts of bandwidth ranging from 500 gigabytes to 3000 gigabytes using the ?overselling? model. It is not uncommon for major players to provide dedicated servers with 1Terabyte (TB) of bandwidth or higher. Usage models based on the byte level measurement usually include a given amount of bandwidth with each server and a price per gigabyte after a certain threshold has been reached. Expect to pay additional fees for bandwidth overage usage. For example, if a dedicated server has been given 3000 gigabytes of bandwidth per month and the customer uses 5000 gigabytes of bandwidth within the billing period, the additional 2000 gigabytes of bandwidth will be invoiced as bandwidth overage. Each provider has a different model for billing. No industry standards have been set yet.

Saturday, May 16, 2015

Bandwidth and Connectivity,percentile,measurement,unmetered service,bandwidth overages,median measurement, Total transfer method, Unmetered method

Bandwidth refers to the data transfer rate or the amount of data that can be carried from one point to another in a given time period (usually a second) and is often represented in bits (of data) per second (bit/s). For example, visitors to your server, web site, or applications utilize bandwidth *Third ? Total Transfer (measured in bytes transferred)

95th percentile method

Line speed, billed on the 95th percentile, refers to the speed in which data flows from the server or device, measured every 5 minutes for the month, and dropping the top 5% of measurements that are highest, and basing the usage for the month on the next-highest measurement. This is similar to a median measurement, which can be thought of as a 50th percentile measurement (with 50% of measurements above, and 50% of measurements below), whereas this sets the cutoff at 95th percentile, with 5% of measurements above the value, and 95% of measurements below the value. This is also known as Burstable billing. Line speed is measured in bits per second (or kilobits per second, megabits per second or gigabits per second).

Unmetered method

The second bandwidth measurement is unmetered service where providers cap or control the ?top line? speed for a server. Top line speed in unmetered bandwidth is the total Mbit/s allocated to the server and configured on the switch level. For example, if you purchase 10 Mbit/s unmetered bandwidth, the top line speed would be 10 Mbit/s. 10 Mbit/s would result in the provider controlling the speed transfers take place while providing the ability for the dedicated server owner to not be charged with bandwidth overages. Unmetered bandwidth services usually incur an additional charge.

Total transfer method

Some providers will calculate the Total Transfer, which is the measurement of actual data leaving and arriving, measured in bytes. Although it is typically the sum of all traffic into and out of the server, some providers measure only outbound traffic (traffic from the server to the internet).

Wednesday, May 13, 2015

Application server,application functions,specific implementation,Web applications,Application Server Frameworks,clustering,fail-over,load-balancing

An application server can be either a software framework that provides a generalized approach to creating an application-server implementation, regard to what the application functions are,or the server portion of a specific implementation instance. In either case, the server's function is dedicated to the efficient execution of procedures (programs, routines, scripts) for supporting its applied applications.

Most Application Server Frameworks contain a comprehensive service layer model. An application server acts as a set of components accessible to the software developer through an API defined by the platform itself. For Web applications, these components are usually performed in the same running environment as its web server(s), and their main job is to support the construction of dynamic pages. However, many application servers target much more than just Web page generation: they implement services like clustering, fail-over, and load-balancing, so developers can focus on implementing the business logic.

In the case of Java application servers, the server behaves like an extended virtual machine for running applications, transparently handling connections to the database on one side, and, often, connections to the Web client on the other.

Other uses of the term may refer to the services that a server makes available or the computer hardware on which the services run.

Saturday, May 9, 2015

Anonymous HTTPS proxy

Users wanting to bypass web filtering, that want to prevent anyone from monitoring what they are doing, will typically search the internet for an open and anonymous HTTPS transparent proxy. They will then program their browser to proxy all requests through the web filter to this anonymous proxy. Those requests will be encrypted with https. The web filter cannot distinguish these transactions from, say, a legitimate access to a financial website. Thus, content filters are only effective against unsophisticated users.

Use of HTTPS proxies are detectable even without examining the encrypted data, based simply on firewall monitoring of addresses for frequency of use and bandwidth usage. If a massive amount of data is being directed through an address that is within an ISP address range such as Comcast, it is likely a home-operated proxy server. Either the single address or the entire ISP address range is then blocked at the firewall to prevent further connections.

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Advanced Network and Services

Advanced Network and Services (ANS) was a United States non-profit organization formed in September 1990 by the NSFNET partners (Merit Network, IBM, and MCI) to run the network infrastructure for the soon to be upgraded NSFNET Backbone Service.